Breaking down the process of DNS resolution

DNS resolution or domain resolution is the process of obtaining a domain name’s IP address. But how does it happen? Here you have a breakdown of the process of DNS resolution, explained step-by-step.

DNS resolution.

DNS resolution, or getting the IP address behind a domain name takes many steps. The DNS has a tree structure, with different levels that are responding queries for the zones (domains) that they keep. Each server that keeps the original data for a zone is called an authoritative DNS server, and it will have the most updated information about it. The other important part of the process is the DNS resolvers. They are DNS servers that search for answers and keep them based on the data’s TTL values.

To make it clear, let’s use this domain for our example: SiteIwant.com.

1. Start of the DNS query

If you want to visit the site, you will type the domain name SiteIwant.com in your browser. Then, your device will need to find the A or AAAA record of that domain name. The A record has the IPv4 address and the AAAA the IPv6 address. One of them is enough to visit the site.

2. Checking the local cache

Each device has its own cache. Even the browser can have an additional one. So the first thing that the device will do is to see if you have visited the site before and still have the records saved. If that is the case, it will use them, and the process will finish. If they are not there, the query will continue to another DNS resolver.

3. Asking the DNS resolver of your Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Your device will ask another DNS resolver for the answer. Then next on the way is the one at your ISP. If it has it, it will return the needed record. If not, the search will continue.

4. Start of the Interactive DNS queries and the Root DNS server

The resolver will use interactive DNS queries to find the best answer. The first server that it will ask is the one with the highest level – the root. The root is marked with a “.” on the right of the TLD (top-level domain). Its authority is to know where the TLD servers are. In this case, it will check the domain name, .com TLD, and point the resolver to their authoritative servers.

5. Query the TLD servers

The TLD servers are authoritative for their zone only, so they will know where the authoritative DNS servers of SiteIwant.com are located, but not the IP address of the site itself. So they will return the answer to the resolver again.

6. The final question – the authority server of the domain name.

Now that the resolver finally knows which is the authoritative name server of the domain name, it will ask it for the name records. The authoritative will provide the answer to the DNS query to the resolver.

7. The resolver answer the DNS query

The resolver has already found the answer, and now it sends it to your device.

8. The domain name is resolved

Your device receives the DNS record and successfully resolves the domain name SiteIwant.com. You can finally visit the site, and your local resolver will keep the DNS records, the time their TTL indicates. 


Now you can understand better the different elements and all the steps the DNS resolution takes. It is a process with many steps, but it only takes a moment of time. How amazing the technology is!


Differences between Unicast DNS and Anycast DNS

Unicast DNS and Anycast DNS are both great ways to route the incoming traffic. Let’s see what are their differences!

Unicast DNS – Definition

Unicast DNS is a traffic routing mechanism that operates in a one-to-one way. The information is transferred from its source node to only one specific destination. The receives and the sender are the only participants in the particular communication in the selected route. Therefore, Unicast DNS is an impressive solution for the transportation of information on the Internet. 

In addition, Unicast DNS is capable of routing DNS queries among DNS servers and DNS users. As a result, the information for a particular domain and its IP address is stored only in one server. Therefore, every incoming request has to travel and reach that server to receive an answer, regardless of its geographical position. That means when a user is near the location of the server, and its response is going to be way quicker. However, in case the user is at a distance from the server, the response is going to take more time, and probably it is going to experience latency.

When we are analyzing Unicast DNS and Anycast DNS, there is no doubt that Unicast is cheaper and easier to use. The reason for that is it includes maintaining and monitoring only one server. However, it is a great option for local businesses. Yet, the availability of your domain relies only on that specific DNS server which could be a huge risk if it fails for some reason. 

Anycast DNS – Definition

Anycast DNS is a mechanism for routing the traffic and achieving fast delivery of content from the websites. It utilizes singular IP addresses on several DNS servers. To put it another way, a single IP address but used by all the nameservers that are on your DNS network.

The purpose of implementing Anycast DNS is to have servers in various places all around the world to be as near as possible to your potential users. This is extremely valuable for Anycast DNS clients because the most nearby they can have a server to their end-users, the quickest their requests can be answered to. It depends on the location from where the user initiated the request for the website, and the nearest available server is going to resolve it. That way, users are able to explore your website without any unnecessary waiting time.

In addition, if the closest DNS server is down for some reason or under attack, the second one, which is closest to the user and available, is going to resolve the request. That means your website is still going to be reachable for your users, and because Anycast DNS uses the shortest route, your domain’s resolution time is pretty fast. 

Unicast DNS and Anycast DNS – Comparison

When we are comparing Unicast DNS and Anycast DNS, it is required to mention the DNS recursive server, which is the one obtaining the DNS records for the demanded hostname. The process usually involves a large number of DNS servers. 

In Unicast DNS routing, the DNS recursive server is going to request the data from the first DNS server on the list, pause till it responds, or there is a timeout, and then it will be capable of asking the following server. For sure, that could cause high latency.

In Anycast DNS routing, DNS recursive servers are configured with an individual IP address for every blend of DNS servers. As a result, the latency is reduced, and there are no pauses when a recursive server queries a DNS server that does not respond. 

DNS Network

DNS load balancing – the best way to manage your traffic

DNS load balancing – Definition

DNS load balancing is a very commonly used technique for achieving the optimal management of the incoming traffic of a hostname. It provides an organized and effective way of spreading the inbound network or application traffic across multiple servers.

If you are an owner of a very popular website, suddenly you would notice that the traffic is going to be a lot. It is going to receive many numerous requests from customers and users. For each of these requests, it is going to be necessary to return a fast and accurate answer with the exact piece of data, such as video, text, and images. In addition, the whole process must be completed in a secure and reliable way.

First, the DNS load balancers are going to utilize several criteria and examine the incoming traffic. The next second step for them is to choose and determine to let the traffic proceed or, in another circumstance, to stop it. They can decide to redirect it to a different server based on a load of a packet at a particular moment.

How does it work?

For the purpose to understand better the process in which DNS load balancing works, it is best to follow its usual order:

  1. Traffic gets to your website. Users and clients create a lot of requests toward your website’s server by the Internet.
  2. The traffic is distributed over the server resources. The load balancer takes each request and directs it to an appropriate server.
  3. Each server operates with a reasonable workload. The server receives the request, and it decides to accept it. Next, it replies with an answer to the balancer in case it is not flooded with too many requests.
  4. The server responds to the query. Finally, the process is completed again but in a backward direction to carry the server’s response back to the user.

Why is DNS load balancing best for traffic management?

There are a couple of main ideas for implementing DNS load balancing: 

  • Speed. The most apparent purpose is better speed. There is no uncertainty regarding that. If there is a DNS network of servers including many locations all around the world, your visitor is going to get much faster responses. Speed is a severe factor for SEO. Therefore you can positively have an advantage above your competitor with a well-configured DNS balancer. 
  • Security. As we previously mentioned, it is capable of examining the incoming traffic. It could check the data packets for errors and prevent malicious efforts to harm your DNS server. It could prevent severe difficulties leading to data breaches, phishing attacks on your customers, downtime, and more. 
  • Reliability. Directing the traffic among the multiple DNS servers could prevent DDoS attacks and be beneficial even in everyday situations. Picture that you have a sale on your website, and you are aware that a peak of traffic during a particular time is possible. If you don’t have additional help, your website could crash, and you will have lots of annoyed clients. This could perhaps harm your brand. 

Cloud DNS hosting – How can you benefit from it?

A cloud DNS hosting is one alternative the businesses have to store their DNS records and be available online, instead of hosting them on their own DNS servers.

It’s already a popular choice, and definitely, it has interesting advantages in store for you. So let’s see how you can benefit from it?

Benefits of a cloud DNS hosting.

Get the necessary PoPs for your business.

This is a very important benefit, especially for international online businesses. A cloud DNS hosting providers have large networks for supplying you with the most attractive and strategic points of presence (PoPs) globally. You just need to choose and add the PoPs that get you closer to your target market!

Speed up DNS resolution for your business. 

A quality cloud DNS hosting providers offer you really robust networks. We talk about many name servers located around the world at your disposal. This is exactly what you need for speeding up the DNS resolution for your domain. And remember, the closer to the place where the request for your domain was sent, the faster response time. And less latency or waiting time for loading a site means happy clients and profits for you!

Get modern and reliable infrastructure.

Your business can rely on secure, modern, and efficient software, hardware, and experts. You can access a solid infrastructure to operate your business with a very narrow chance of failure. Besides, you will save money because it’s not you directly buying and maintaining all these attractive assets.

Scale up or down, based on your needs.

Every business looks for constant growth. But to grow brings bigger needs for your business (security, speed, PoPs, etc.). To expand or reduce your resources can be expensive if you don’t have accurate calculations. A cloud DNS hosting makes this easier because you can add or cancel features based on your real needs without compromising your budget. There are plans and possibilities for all types and businesses sizes.

Add redundancy, and increase uptime.

Redundancy means the difference between being available online consistently or not. And a cloud DNS hosting is an efficient way to gain it. Having your DNS records saved in more than one server, you don’t have to worry about downtime if a server fails or suffers an attack. For sure, another server from the network will serve the clients’ requests. Higher uptime represents a good experience for clients and more money in your pocket.

Strength your security. 

A cloud DNS hosting providers offer you security features. Some even supply you with an anti-DDoS technology. But in a basic way, Cloud DNS hosting by nature offers servers enough for balancing your traffic loads, and that can be helpful to prevent or mitigate such online threats.

It’s easy to use.

To be an administrator is a tough job. A cloud DNS hosting simplifies the management of a domain, it supplies a friendly panel to execute tasks easily, and it’s in charge of maintenance and other routine tasks. As a result, you can focus on critical missions for your business. 

Customer support.

Terms, conditions, schedules, and ways to contact the support team depend on every provider, but usually, the providers offer good customer support. 


A cloud DNS hosting offers real benefits for you and your online business. Check your website needs, budget, and different quality providers to make the best decision.


4 great GeoDNS providers to choose from

You came to the conclusion that the GeoDNS service is right for you and that it will boost your domain performance and provide redundancy. Great! Here we have 4 great GeoDNS providers to choose from. 

Top-notch GeoDNS – Neustar

When you are thinking about a big GeoDNS provider that will satisfy all your DNS needs, Neustar is an excellent choice. The company has more than 20 years of experience. Neustar also offers great speed and security.

The GeoDNS service this company offers is called Directional DNS service, and it can handle up to 55 billion global queries per day! Very impressive number! There is an awesome targeting method with 3500 geographic locations and UltraGeopoint that continuously updates the geographic IP addresses.

As you can expect, there is 24/7 customer service that can help you with all your questions.

Some of you might not like that the price of the service depends a lot on the particular case. This is why there are no public prices, and every client should contact a sale’s person from Neustar to get a quotation. 

Best Performance-to-price GeoDNS – ClouDNS

ClouDNS also has a large DNS network and outstanding DNS services. It is in the category for performance-to-price because it offers not only Enterprise offers but also many great choices for small and medium-sized companies. The most economical option for GeoDNS starts at just $9.95 per month, but the one that might be specifically interesting for most clients costs $44.95 per month.

Here you have up to 500 000 000 queries per month, EDNS, 4 Anycast DNS servers, and 34 PoP. 5000 DNS records, DNSSEC, DNS monitor and failover, and again 24/7 customer service.

If it is not enough for you, there is another plan for $79.95 that doubles most of the resources of the previous one. And, of course, you can go to “unlimited” resources with a custom Enterprise plan for your needs.

Pay-what-you-use GeoDNS – Constellix

Constelix is based on another payment type – pay-what-you-use. The company has the price of each service and feature on their page so you could really understand every part of your bill. This might be a bit harder for some to know exactly how much they will pay. But for others, it might be especially good, because they are good with the calculator and won’t overpay.

Here the GeoDNS is called Global Traffic Director, and it brags with advanced GeoDNS capability.

It uses GeoIP that maps IP addresses to countries and boosts the precision of the geo-data with the use of eDNS. The eDNS adds a suffix that indicates the location of the resolver.

Constellix is mostly for medium-size and large companies with billions of queries per month from many different locations.

Economic GeoDNS option – easyDNS

Here we are talking about really affordable prices. The DNS PRO plan of easyDNS costs only $40 per year ($3.33 per month). Yes, its resources are more limited. Here you have up to only 5 million queries per month, but still, you can use 3 Anycast servers, 20 PoP, DNS failover and monitor, DNSSEC, and Geo-based features.

Not bad for smaller companies.


So, think about your needs. How many queries are you expecting, and what locations are important for you. All of these 4 GeoDNS providers provide excellent service. Just choose wisely, so you don’t overpay for extras you don’t need. 


How can GeoDNS improve your performance?

What is GeoDNS?

You can find GeoDNS, also called global traffic director, or just traffic director. It is an effective approach for optimizing traffic to domains by implementing geographical-based routing. Additionally, it is considered a cloud alternative for load balancing. It has a positive effect on the performance of the network.

If you are running a business that distributes content all over the world, you could definitely benefit from it. GeoDNS provides you nameservers that are strategically positioned throughout the globe plus an efficient way to spread the traffic regarding queries’ locations.

How does GeoDNS work?

To start using GeoDNS, you want a DNS provider that supports Geolocation. Once you start implementing it, the DNS server is going to look for the location of every user’s query that is received. DNS checks the user’s IP address and searches for the location in the database. Then, the name server is going to send a pre-configured record defined explicitly for the country where the query arrived from. After GeoDNS identifies the query’s location, it determines the best and faster route to respond.

It utilizes DNS GeoIP searches to direct customers to the best server option, in other words, the one which is the closest location. As a result, every server will have different IP addresses for the corresponding domain. 


Enabling GeoDNS for your domain provides some clear advantages.

  • Optimized traffic distribution

With GeoDNS, it is possible to manage the traffic wisely. It is a great solution for load balancing. It guarantees that the nearest nameserver will respond to the request of the visitor. Moreover, through this distribution, traffic overload is easy to avoid automatically.

  • Improved loading time

Quick loading is essential for improving the users’ experience and a critical factor in ranking in search engines. Moreover, based on the intelligent location method of GeoDNS, waiting time for sure is going to be lower for your visitors. That is already significant advantage. However, now that a positive user experience is also considered to be placed in the first search results, the gain is even more precious.

  • Improved uptime

Having a group of DNS servers is a great privilege. In case one server is down, the user’s request for sure is going to be resolved from one of the other servers.

Through IP filtering, you can deny access or direct users from a specific region. Let’s take, for example, a singer contracted exclusively with a British company. When there is a release of new songs, access to them can be restricted by IP filtering only for British users. IP addresses that are from other countries are going to be dropped.

Who can use it?

There are no limits when it comes to who can benefit from GeoDNS. All types of organizations could find it helpful. For instance, small websites that want to expand could like to use it. On the other hand, probably the biggest need of it has the large businesses to achieve stable process. It is considered that international organizations that handle a lot of traffic could get the most out of it. 


Why should you choose Anycast DNS?

Anycast DNS explained

Anycast DNS is a traffic routing mechanism that delivers content fast from websites. It uses multiple nameservers that hold one individual IP address. 

Every one of the servers is located in a separate geographical location in order to be as close as possible to the users. The reason for that is to achieve a faster response to the request, which leads to a better user experience. The server that is nearest and available to the client requesting the website is going to answer. Any possibilities for latency are reduced to a minimum. Your website is easily reachable, and customers won’t wait long to connect with it.

Additionally, if the nearest server it’s not working due to maintenance, for example, another server, the next closest, is going to answer. 

Anycast DNS manages requests by the quickest route. For that reason, your domain’s resolution time becomes very еxpress. 


  • Easy setup – You just have to configure it in only one server. Additionally, such settings can be expanded to the entire network.
  • Improved response time – With directing to the closest available DNS server, the response time is reduced.
  • DDoS protection – In case a DDoS attack appears, only a piece of the whole Anycast DNS group of servers is going to experience it.
  • Reliability – Implementing Anycast improves DNS reliability by establishing many servers in different locations with identical IP address. As a result, the service is more highly available and reliable because of the redundancy of the DNS servers. 

Why should you choose Anycast DNS?

If you are running an international business and your online presence is crucial, Anycast DNS is a great opportunity. Additionally, if you provide a service and you want speed and reliability in every location, you can benefit a lot from this type of routing mechanism. 

Anycast DNS manages the traffic in the most efficient way, plus your customers will be happy to reach your website easily. The improved network converts into a great experience and more sales.

Anycast DNS and CDN

Anycast DNS is a perfect choice for Content Delivery Network (CDN). The reason is its ability to quickly respond to queries and directing the traffic to a close local server.

Let’s picture an example network, where we have customers from 3 different continents: Europe, Asia, and North America. So, we established three copies of the website on three separate servers with different IP addresses. On every continent, we have set up Anycast DNS servers. So, therefore, all the traffic in North America is directed to the DNS server there. The traffic in Asia is directed to the Asian server, and the same runs for Europe.

The CDN is going to reduce the latency significantly for two reasons.

  • First, the Anycast DNS servers are as close as possible to the customers. They are positioned in each continent and even probably in each needed country. The domain is going to resolve very quickly.
  • Second are the several copies of the website. Thus, you are not just responding to the domain name query faster, although you can also manage the traffic to a closer web hosting.

When you combine these two, the customers are receiving the best experience. If the nameservers and web servers are located on different continents, the users will face latency for sure.